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今日の英語ニュース☆2023.10.03☆時事英語・ニュース英語を極める

PBS NewsHour Oct. 2, 2023

このnoteの目的は、アメリカのニュース番組が理解出来るようになる方法を伝えることです。その方法とは、英語字幕を読みながら英語ニュースを毎日見続けること。 こんな感じです(サンプルのスクリーンショット)

使う教材は、上のリンクの動画です。
アメリカの公共放送PBSのニュース番組で、質の高い報道に定評がありますが、残念なことに、字幕に誤りがかなり含まれていることがあります。番組がアメリカで放送されてから約2時間で最終版の字幕がアップロードされますので、時間的制約を考えれば誤りは仕方がないことかもしれません。

しかし、英語学習者の場合、字幕に誤りがあると、変だと思っても、それが本当に間違いなのか分からないことがあると思います。あるいは、間違いに気付かないこともあるかもしれません。ですから、正確な字幕が必要です。

そこで、約1時間の番組ですが、英語音声をすべて聞いて、字幕の明らかな誤りを訂正したものをダウンロードできるようにしています(少し下にあります)。この字幕ファイルと動画をダウンロードして再生ソフトで使ってください(上のスクリーンショット動画のように再生できます。英語が速すぎる場合は、あまりおすすめしませんが、再生速度の調節もできます)。

また、このnoteや字幕ファイルでは、辞書を調べても分からないような英語表現を説明しています(辞書を引けば分かる言葉は、自分で調べてください)。辞書に載ってないような表現、辞書にあっても意味がたくさんありすぎてどれなのか分からない言葉、文脈の中で特殊な使われ方をしている言葉、背景の知識がないと分からない部分、ニュース英語や時事英語の独特な表現、知っていると訳に立ちそうな表現などを説明しています(書き加えた説明は[* ……] )。

それでは、今日も一緒に英語のニュースを見ていきましょう!


■ 英語字幕ファイルのダウンロード 

  • [PBS NewsHour Oct. 2, 2023] の字幕ファイルのダウンロード
    (この字幕ファイルはテキストエディタ(windowsの「メモ帳」など)で開くことも出来ますが、下の「字幕ファイルの使い方」のように再生ソフト(無料)で使うことをおすすめしますこんな感じに表示されます。)

  • ブラウザーによってダウンロードがブロックされる場合ば、下のテキストファイルをダウンロードして拡張子.txtを .lrcに変更して使ってください(例えば、Chromeは、.lrcのようなあまり使われない拡張子のファイルを危険と判断することがあるようです)。


■ 動画サイトへのリンク

・直接動画サイトを見る場合のリンクです(リンク先字幕の誤りは元のまま)
・分からない言葉はこの2つの辞書でたいてい見つかると思います
上の字幕ファイルには、約1時間の番組の全字幕と語句説明があります
・以下はサンプル程度です

[00:00] Introduction

[02:07] Trump's business empire in question during New York civil fraud trial

Former President Trump was in court Monday for a civil fraud trial over his real estate dealings. The judge already ruled on one of the arguments from prosecutors last week, saying Trump and his executives fraudulently inflated the value of real estate holdings. The judge still has to weigh in on other claims in the suit. Geoff Bennett discussed the case with Russ Buettner of The New York Times.
《トランプ・オーガナイゼーション存亡の危機か; Russ Buettner, The New York Times; if the final judgment is in the neighborhood of $250 million, and there's a receiver put in charge of this thing to figure out whether something has to be sold to do that, and, at the end of the day, Donald Trump has a much diminished sort of empire and has lost all of his licenses to conduct business in the city of New York, that's an existential threat to the Trump Organization and the Trump family's enterprise; 》

[08:59] News Wrap

European Union leaders gathered in Kyiv and insisted they're still united over supporting Ukraine's war effort, the last of some 100,000 people from Nagorno-Karabakh crossed into Armenia and the Nobel Prize for medicine goes to two scientists whose discoveries paved the way for vaccines against COVID-19.
《This year's Nobel Prize for medicine goes to two scientists. The pair are American Drew Weissman and Hungarian-American Katalin Kariko, both of them are professors at the University of Pennsylvania; COVID vaccines based on messenger-RNA that targets proteins in a virus; doxycycline; Dorothy Hoffner (104) made a jump from 13,500 feet on Sunday, attached to an instructor; Hoffman began jumping when she turned 100. Shell be 105 in December; skydive; DoxyPEP》

[11:21] The CDC is moving to endorse a common antibiotic for preventing sexually transmitted diseases in gay and bisexual men. The proposal released today involves doxycycline. Recent studies show it can stop some STDs from developing if taken within 72 hours of exposure. The guideline is subject to 45 days of public comment before it becomes final.

[** doxycycline = 以前の番組に出てきました。ドキシサイクリン ]

[12:58]★今日のおすすめ★ McCarthy faces revolt from far-right Republicans after deal to avoid government shutdown

The government is open after House Speaker Kevin McCarthy side-stepped the hard-right flank of his party and cut a temporary funding deal with Democrats this weekend. But this week, he may need to broker another cross-aisle bargain to keep his job. Congressional Correspondent Lisa Desjardins reports from Capitol Hill.
《連邦政府閉鎖回避の裏側と今後; Matt Gaetz; motion to vacate to strip Kevin McCarthy of his speakership; 》

[15:22] LISA DESJARDINS: Yes, Congressman Matt Gaetz of Florida says he will, in fact, try and oust him this week. We don't know when. It could be as soon as tonight. And not only that. If that fails, Gaetz says, he will try again and again. The motion to vacate is something that we're going to talk about more in days ahead. But Speaker Kevin McCarthy, I want to say, is saying, bring it on. He is daring Congressman Gaetz to have enough votes.

[** motion to vacate = 最近何度も出てきました。 議長解任動議 ]

[15:45] The margins are so close here, Amna, that, if Democrats want to, they could really cause some problems on the House floor and have no speaker. Or do they vote present and allow Kevin McCarthy to keep his job?

[** to vote present = Voting present on a piece of legislation means that you are not casting your vote either for or against the bill. Instead, you are simply acknowledging that you were present for the vote and are not contributing either to its passage or failure. Voting present does allow your attendance to be recorded for the record, which helps the House achieve a quorum, or the required number of members for business to be done in the chamber.
https://www.distractify.com/p/what-does-it-mean-to-vote-present ]

[16:02]★今日のおすすめ★ Tamara Keith and Andrew Desiderio on what's next for the House and McCarthy's speakership

NPR’s Tamara Keith and Andrew Desiderio of Punchbowl News join Geoff Bennett to discuss the latest political news, including what's next for Speaker McCarthy after making a deal with Democrats to avoid a government shutdown, the appointment of Laphonza Butler to fill the Senate seat once held by Dianne Feinstein and President Biden's response to concerns about his age.
《月曜恒例:2人の政治アナリストと今週の動きを占う; Tamara Keith and Andrew Desiderio of Punchbowl; California Governor Gavin Newsom choosing Laphonza Butler to fill the seat of the late Democratic Senator Dianne Feinstein; 》

[17:23] GEOFF BENNETT: And, Tam, what's the decision matrix for -- decision matrix for Democrats as they determine whether to bail out Kevin McCarthy?

[** decision matrix = an arrangement of data in rows and columns, used to help someone make a decision by comparing different possibilities according to particular standards (Cambridge Dictionary) ]

[18:00] So, for Democrats, there's also just this calculation of the devil you know and the devil you don't know. They know Kevin McCarthy. They know that, in the end, when pressed, he did actually choose to govern over choosing to shut the government down, choosing to take the far-right position. So that is something that weighs somewhat in his favor with Democrats.

[** < the devil you know is better than the devil you don't = Something bad and familiar is better than something bad and unknown (wiktionary)]

[19:31] GEOFF BENNETT: Well, let's keep our focus trained on the Hill and talk about another story, with California Governor Gavin Newsom choosing Laphonza Butler. She's the president of EMILY's List. And she is named to fill the seat of the late Democratic Senator Dianne Feinstein, who passed recently. She will be the third Black woman to ever serve in the Senate, as well as the first openly LGBTQ person to represent California.

[** = EMILY's List is an American political action committee (PAC) that aims to help elect Democratic female candidates in favor of abortion rights to office. It was founded by Ellen Malcolm in 1985...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/EMILY's_List ( Wikipediaの右上のlanguagesに日本語のページへのリンクもあります ) ]

[23:22] UN to send international police force to Haiti to combat rising gang

The United Nations Security Council approved sending an international police force, led by Kenya, to Haiti. The U.S. drafted resolution was approved with abstentions from China and Russia and aims to combat rising gang violence in the Caribbean nation. U.S. Ambassador to the U.N. Linda Thomas Greenfield has been a central figure in the push and joined Amna Nawaz to discuss the vote.
《国連安保理がケニア主導の多国籍治安部隊をハイチへ派遣; ハイチ警察を支援; Linda Thomas Greenfield, U.S. Ambassador to the U.N.; 》

[29:54]★今日のおすすめ★ The major cases on the docket as Supreme Court begins new term

A new term for the U.S. Supreme Court kicks off this week. On the docket are consequential cases that could determine the future of key issues like gun ownership and redistricting. Looming large over this term are also calls for greater ethics guidelines for the justices. Geoff Bennett and NewsHour Supreme Court analyst Marcia Coyle previewed all that’s to come.
《連邦最高裁の新会期始まる; Marcia Coyle, Supreme Court analyst; social media and First Amendment; SNS; guns; voting rights; regulatory state or the administrative state; Consumer Financial Protection Bureau; ethical questions; Justice Clarence Thomas recused himself from a case involving the January 6 attack on the U.S. Capitol; 》

[31:08] Besides that, guns are back, as you mentioned, before the Supreme Court. This is a really interesting case. There's a provision in our federal crimes code that prohibits firearm ownership by anyone who's under a domestic violence prevention protection order. And a lower federal report [* report? court? ] struck that provision down, said it violated the Second Amendment because it could not pass the test that the Supreme Court's 6-3 conservative majority implemented two terms ago. And that has caused a lot of frustration among judges, because it's based on history. They're not historians.

[** < United States v. Rahimi = https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_v._Rahimi //
以前の番組でも取り上げています ]

[35:47] Child care centers face funding gap as pandemic-era grants expire

Key funding for child care centers dating back to the pandemic ended on Saturday. More than 220,000 centers counted on those grants to help pay the bills and raise wages. With the loss of funding, one progressive think tank projects that as many as 70,000 facilities could close in the long run. Stephanie Sy discussed the ramifications with Julie Kashen.
《パンデミック期の保育所助成金終了; Julie Kashen, The Century Foundation; 》

[41:02] We don't ask parents to pay the full freight for a fourth grade class, but we do ask them to do that for infants and toddlers.

[** < to pay the freight = to bear the cost ]

[41:27] Veteran exposed to toxic burn pits wins precedent-setting lawsuit

Last week in Texas, a jury ruled in favor of LeRoy Torres, a former army reservist exposed to toxic burn pits. The landmark case is seen as a major victory for veterans. William Brangham discussed the verdict with LeRoy’s wife, Rosie Torres. Together they founded Burn Pits 360, an organization advocating on behalf of veterans exposed to toxic environments.
《burn pits; Le Roy Torres, Texas State Trooper, Army Reservist called to active duty in 2007 and deployed to Iraq; Rosie Torres, Le Roy's wife; Burn Pits 360, which advocates on behalf of veterans exposed to toxic environments; 》

[46:09] WILLIAM BRANGHAM: Regarding this other ongoing struggle you have with the Department of Veterans Affairs, passage of what was called the PACT Act was supposed to clear the way and really smooth a lot of veterans getting disability benefits through the VA.

[** PACT Act = The Sergeant First Class (SFC) Heath Robinson Honoring our Promise to Address Comprehensive Toxics (PACT) Act = it is an Act of Congress that spends $797 billion to significantly improve healthcare access and funding for veterans who were exposed to toxic substances during military service...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honoring_our_PACT_Act_of_2022 ]

[46:25] And I understand that there is still an issue with the VA recognizing the very particular illness that Le Roy has, constrictive bronchiolitis. Can you tell us what the issue is with that? Where does that stand? ROSIE TORRES: So the issue with constrictive bronchiolitis is that the VA hasn't established a code to properly compensate veterans on that disease.

[** constrictive bronchiolitis = 以前の番組に出てきました。狭窄性細気管支炎 ]   

[** code = diagnostic code < The VA does not have a specific disability rating diagnostic code in its Schedule for Rating Disabilities for the condition, so it assigns a rating by comparing the severity of a veteran’s symptoms with similar respiratory diseases listed in the ratings schedule... https://www.woodslawyers.com/constrictive-bronchiolitis-va-disability-rating/ ]

[47:17] Two decades ago, Dr. Miller presented and advocates presented the issue of constrictive bronchiolitis, which is -- I have to say, over 90 percent of people self-report that they're suffering from the issue of not being able to breathe.

[** = Robert Miller = 以前の番組に登場しました ]

[48:01] How a Houston medical center is harmonizing health and performing arts

The Center For Performing Arts Medicine is an unusual partnership of a world-class hospital and world-class performing arts organizations. It was founded in 1992 with a focus on singers, but then something unexpected happened. Jeffrey Brown reports from Houston for our arts and culture series, CANVAS.
《change from reactive to proactive care; 》

[53:14] JEFFREY BROWN: In this session, Hornbuckle received dry needling, cupping, massaging, and other treatments to alleviate pain in her legs and prevent serious injury.

[** = Dry needling, also known as trigger point dry needling and intramuscular stimulation, is a treatment technique used by various healthcare practitioners, including physical therapists, physicians, and chiropractors, among others. Acupuncturists usually maintain that dry needling is adapted from acupuncture, but others consider dry needling as a variation of trigger point injections...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dry_needling 鍼治療の一種 ]

[** = Cupping therapy is a form of alternative medicine in which a local suction is created on the skin with the application of heated cups. Its practice mainly occurs in Asia but also in Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Latin America...
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cupping_therapy ( Wikipediaの右上のlanguagesに日本語のページへのリンクもあります ) ]


■ おすすめの辞書(時事英語やニュース英語に強い辞書)

■ 英語のラジオを聞く(BGM代わりにCNNやBBC)

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