# Dual reference oscillator phase-lock loop

A phase-locked loop has a stable high frequency reference oscillator to provide a stable high frequency reference signal that has reference frequency that is a small submultiple of a generated frequency of a voltage controlled oscillator within the phase-locked loop. An adjustable output frequency feedback circuit has with a feedback divide ratio that is approximately the small submultiple and adjusts the feedback ratio such that the generated frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator is locked to a stable low frequency reference input signal. The feedback divide ratio is adjusted as a function of a required ratio change value that is a function of a current phase error of the generated frequency of a voltage controlled oscillator and the stable low frequency reference input signal and a phase error derivative. The phase error derivative is a difference of the current phase error and a previous phase error.

## Latest Dialog Semiconductor GmbH Patents:

**Description**

This application claims priority under 35 U.S.C. §119 to U.S. Provisional Patent Application Ser. No. 61/278,699, filed on Oct. 8, 2009, assigned to the same assignee as the present invention, and incorporated herein by reference in its entirety.

**RELATED PATENT APPLICATIONS**

“Digital Controller for Automatic Rate Detection and Tracking of Audio Interface Clocks,” Ser. No. 12/592,589, Filing Date Nov. 30, 2009, assigned to the same assignee as this invention.

**BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION**

1. Field of the Invention

The present invention relates to phase-locked loop circuits. More particularly, the present invention relates to phase-locked loops having dual reference oscillators.

2. Description of Related Art

As is known in the art, a Phase-Locked Loop (PLL) is a closed-loop circuit that compares the phase of the output signal with the phase of an incoming reference signal. The circuit adjusts itself until the two signals are phase aligned and is thus considered to have the output in phase lock with the input reference signal. Once the loop is locked the phase difference between the output signal and the input signal is very close to zero. The frequency of the output signal is an integer or fractional multiple of the input reference signal's frequency.

Referring to **5** has a stable reference oscillator **10** that provides the incoming reference signal **12** that is compared with the output signal f_{OUT }**35**. The output **12** of the reference oscillator **10** is an input to a phase/frequency detector and charge pump circuit **15**. The phase/frequency detector and charge pump circuit **15** determines the phase error between the incoming reference signal **12** and the output signal f_{OUT }**35** and provides an output phase error voltage that is an input to the charge pump. The phase error is converted by the charge pump into a correction current that is transferred to the loop filter **20**. The loop filter **20** generates a control voltage that varies the frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator **25**. The output of the voltage controlled oscillator **25** is the output signal f_{OUT }**35**. The output signal f_{OUT }**35** fed in to the feedback divider **30**. The feedback divider **30** divides or multiplies the output signal f_{OUT }**35** to create the feedback signal **32** that is compared in the phase/frequency detector and charge pump circuit **15** to generate the correction current. When the phase error has been reduced to zero, the voltage controlled oscillator **25** is not varied and the phase-locked loop **5** is considered locked.

Integrated systems typically have a stable reference oscillator **10** acting as the main system clock. Individual devices within the system use the phase-locked loop **5** to derive their internal clock(s) from the stable master reference oscillator **10**. In order to save cost and/or power it is often desirable to use a low-frequency source such as a watch crystal oscillator as the master reference oscillator **10**. Using a low-frequency reference imposes a serious limitation on the bandwidth of the phase-locked loop. For an integrated circuit (IC) phase-locked loop **5**, this either requires off-chip components or digital filters to achieve a sufficiently low bandwidth.

**SUMMARY OF THE INVENTION**

An object of this invention is to provide a phase-locked loop having an output frequency feedback circuit with a relatively small feedback divide ratios and sufficiently low bandwidth.

To accomplish at least this object, a phase-locked loop includes a reference oscillator to provide a stable high frequency reference input signal. The phase-locked loop further includes a feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit. The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit receives an output signal from a voltage controlled oscillator of the phase-locked loop. The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit scales a frequency of the output signal of the voltage controlled oscillator by a first integer factor (N). The scaled output signal is used to increment a counter which is the input of a capture register that is within the feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit that is clocked by a stable low frequency reference input signal. The stable low frequency reference input signal increments a compare register by a second integer factor (K). The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit then subtracts the contents of the compare register from the contents of the capture register to determine a phase error between the output signal of the voltage controlled oscillator and the stable low frequency reference input signal.

The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit retains a previous phase error that is compared with the current phase error to determine a phase error derivative. The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit then calculates a required ratio change value from the phase error and the phase error derivative. The required ratio change value adjusts the feedback divider until the phase-locked loop reaches synchronization and the frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator is equal to the product of the first integer factor and the second integer factor multiplied times the frequency of the stable low frequency reference input signal.

In some embodiments, the required ratio change value is applied to a sigma delta modulator. The sigma delta modulator receives a feedback signal from the feedback divider that acts as a timing signal for the sigma delta modulator. The output of the sigma delta modulator is the adjustment signal for the feedback divider to synchronize the output of the voltage controlled oscillator to the stable low frequency reference input signal.

In other embodiments, the feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit determines a scaling ratio for a feedback divider of a phase-locked loop to generate a feedback signal that is a pre-scaled output signal of a voltage controlled oscillator of the phase-locked loop. The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit has a capture counter that is incremented based on a first integer factor (N) of the frequency of the output signal of the voltage controlled oscillator. The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit receives a stable low frequency reference input signal that is used to clock a capture register to capture the capture count of capture counter. The stable low frequency reference input signal further clocks a compare register that is incremented by a second integer factor.

The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit has a phase comparator that receives the contents of the capture register and the compare register and determines a current phase error as the difference between the contents of the capture register and the compare register.

A phase derivative circuit retains a previous phase error and compares the previous phase error with the current phase error to determine a phase error derivative. The current phase error and the phase error derivative are then used to determine a required ratio change value. The required ratio change value adjusts the feedback divider until the phase-locked loop reaches synchronization and the frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator is equal to the product of the first integer factor and the second integer factor multiplied times the frequency of the stable low frequency reference input signal.

**BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS**

**DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION**

As described above, the use of a low-frequency reference input signal to a phase-locked loop imposes a serious limitation on the bandwidth of the PLL. In a classic design of the prior art an integrated circuit phase-locked loop requires either off-chip components or digital filters to achieve the sufficiently low bandwidth. Furthermore, the required large feedback divide ratios for a phase-locked loop having a very high frequency output signal relative to the low frequency reference input signal that are make the phase-locked loop susceptible to reference noise. The phase-locked loop of this invention solves these problems by integrating a stabile high frequency reference oscillator together with a feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit with the phase-locked loop provide a phase-locked loop having an output frequency feedback circuit with a relatively small feedback divide ratios and sufficiently low bandwidth.

**100** includes a reference oscillator **105** to is provide a stable high frequency reference input signal **107** to a phase/frequency detector and charge pump circuit **110**. The output of the phase/frequency detector and charge pump circuit **110** is applied to a loop filter **115** that filter out the high frequency component of a phase error signal **112** between the output signal f_{OUT }**125** and the stable high frequency reference input signal **107**. The filtered phase error signal **112** is a correction voltage level that adjusts the oscillation frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator **120** to generate the output signal f_{OUT }**125**. The output signal f_{OUT }**125** is an input to the output divider circuit **130** that is used to create the necessary signal conditioning for the device clocks **135** that are distributed within an electronic system

The output signal f_{OUT }**125** fed to an adjustable ratio feedback divider **160**. The adjustable ratio feedback divider **160** divides or multiplies the output signal f_{OUT }**125** to create the feedback signal **142** that is compared in the phase/frequency detector and charge pump circuit **110** to generate the phase error signal **112**. When the phase error signal **112** has been reduced to zero, the voltage controlled oscillator **120** is not varied and the phase-locked loop **100** is considered locked. To lock output signal f_{OUT }**125** to a low frequency reference signal **155**, the feedback divider ratio of the adjustable ratio feedback divider **160** must be adjusted such that the frequency of the output signal f_{OUT }**125** is a multiple of the stable low frequency reference input signal **155**.

Within the adjustable ratio feedback divider **160**, a feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit **150** is in communication with a feedback divider **140** to provide a required ratio change value to the feedback divider **140** to appropriately set the feedback signal **142** to correctly set the phase error signal **112** to lock the phase-locked loop **100**. The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit **150** receives the output signal f_{OUT }**125** from a voltage controlled oscillator **120**. The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit **150** scales a frequency of the output signal f_{OUT }**125** by a first integer factor (N). The scaled output signal is used to increment a counter which is the input of a capture register that is within the feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit **150** (discussed hereinafter in more detail) that is clocked by a stable low frequency reference input signal **155**. The stable low frequency reference input signal **155** increments a compare register by a second integer factor (K). The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit **140** then subtracts the contents of the compare register from the contents of the capture register to determine a phase error (PE) between the output signal f_{OUT }**125** of the voltage controlled oscillator and the stable low frequency reference input signal **155**.

The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit **140** retains a previous phase error that is compared with the current phase error to determine a phase error derivative (PE′). The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit **140** then calculates a required ratio change value (X+ΔX) **152** from the phase error and the phase error derivative. The required ratio change value **152** is applied to a sigma delta modulator **145**. The sigma delta modulator **145** receives the feedback signal **142** from the feedback divider **140** that acts as a timing signal for the sigma delta modulator **145**. The output (Y[n]) **147** of the sigma delta modulator **145** is the adjustment signal for the feedback divider **140** to synchronize the output signal f_{OUT }**125** of the voltage controlled oscillator **120** to the stable low frequency reference input signal **155**. The required ratio change value **152** adjusts the feedback divider **140** until the phase-locked loop **100** reaches synchronization and the frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator **120** is equal to the product of the first integer factor (N) and the second integer factor (K) multiplied times the frequency of the stable low frequency reference input signal **155**.

The feedback divider **140** functions by dividing the output signal f_{OUT }**125** by a ratio value that is controlled by the sigma delta modulator **145**. The sigma delta modulator **145** output hops around in a chaotic fashion such that its average value is equal to required divide ratio (X+ΔX) **152**. The ratio change value (ΔX) **152** updates at a much lower rate—well below the PLL bandwidth to maintain stability, and in some audio embodiments below the audio bandwidth so as not to produce audible artifacts.

Refer now to **150**. The output signal f_{OUT }**125** is an input to a prescaler circuit **200**. The prescaler circuit **200** divides the frequency of the output signal f_{OUT }**125** by the first integer factor (N). The prescaled output signal (f_{OUT}/N) **202** is the clocking input to the capture counter **205**. The capture counter **205** is incremented by the adder **210**.

The stable low frequency reference input signal **155** is the clocking input to a capture register **215**. At each cycle of the stable low frequency reference input signal **155**, the capture register **215** acquires the count value of the capture counter **205** to determine the number of prescaled output signal (f_{OUT}/N) **202** cycles within a single cycle of the stable low frequency reference input signal **155**. At the same time, the stable low frequency reference input signal **155** is the clocking input to the compare register **225**. The compare register **225** receives a count that is increased by the second integer factor (K). The contents of the compare register **225** are iteratively added to the second integer factor (K) in the adder **220**. A current phase error (PE) **235** is determined by determining the difference of the contents of the capture register **215** and the compare register **225** in the difference circuit **230**.

A phase error derivative circuit **250** determines a phase error derivative (PE′) **260**. Each current phase error (PE) **235** is retained in previous phase error register **240** within the phase error derivative circuit **250**. The previous phase error register **240** is updated with an update signal **255**. The previous phase error is extracted from the previous phase error register **240** and compared with the current phase error **235** in the difference circuit **245**. The phase error (PE) **235** and the phase error derivative (PE′) **260** are the inputs to the control circuit **265**. The control circuit **265** is clocked with the update signal **255** to generate the required ratio change value (ΔX) **270**. The required ratio change value (ΔX) **270** determines the amount of the change in the feedback divider ratio to provide the necessary change in the feedback signal **142** of **120** into synchronization with the stable low frequency reference input signal **155**.

The ratio change value (ΔX) is calculated as KP*PE+KD*PE′. The constant KP is the proportional gain factor, and the constant KD is the differential gain factor so that the control circuit **265** calculates the ratio change value (ΔX) as a proportional plus differential (PD) controller. In other embodiments, the control circuit **265** calculates the ratio change value (ΔX) as a proportional plus integral (PI) or a proportional plus integral plus differential (PID) controller. In the embodiments, employing a PI or a PID controller the integral of phase error must be calculated as well.

When the phase-locked loop **100** of **155**, the phase error (PE) **235** will approach zero, which implies that the number of cycles of the output signal f_{OUT }**125** for each cycle of the stable low frequency reference input signal **155** is equal to the product of the first integer factor (N) multiplied by the second integer factor (K). (f_{OUT}=N×K×f_{LOW}).

While the embodiments as described generally refer to electronic circuitry specifically designed for performing as a phase-locked loop having a feedback divider circuit with an adjustable divider ratio. In other embodiments, the phase-locked loop function may be executed as digital code that when executed on a computer processor such as a digital signal processor performs the function of locking an output signal to a stable low frequency reference input signal. In these embodiments, the feedback divider function must also have the ability to vary the divider ratio of the feedback divider function.

Refer now to _{OUT }of a voltage controlled oscillator is prescaled (Box **300**) by dividing the output signal f_{OUT }by a first integer value N. The prescaled output signal f_{OUT }provides a timing value for incrementing (Box **305**) a capture counter according to a cycle time of the prescaled output signal f_{OUT}. The value of the capture counter is transferred (Box **310**) to a capture register with a time interval that is the cycle time of a stable low frequency reference input signal f_{LOW}. The stable low frequency reference input signal f_{LOW }is used to increment (Box **315**) a compare register by a second integer factor K. The phase error (PE) between the output signal f_{OUT }of the voltage controlled oscillator and the stable low frequency reference input signal f_{LOW }is calculated (Box **320**) by comparing a difference of the contents of the capture register and compare register. A phase error derivative (PE′) is calculated (Box **325**) as difference between a retained previous phase error and the current phase error. A required ratio change value (ΔX) is calculated (Box **330**) as a function of the current phase error (PE) and the phase error derivative (PE′). The feedback divide ratio is adjusted (Box **340**) according to the required ratio change value (ΔX) and the voltage controlled oscillator is adjusted (Box **345**) based on the new feedback divide ratio as compared to a stable high frequency reference input signal f_{HIGH}. The process is iterated until the required ratio change value (ΔX) has remained constant, or nearly constant, for a length of time at which time the phase-locked loop is considered synchronized to the stable low frequency reference input signal f_{LOW}. The degree to which ΔX is allowed to vary and the length of time for which it should remain constant is dependant upon the required accuracy and response, time of the system. The process continues to be iterated to ensure that the phase-locked loop remains synchronized.

The ratio change value (ΔX) is calculated as KP*PE+KD*PE′. The constant KP is the proportional gain factor, and the constant KD is the differential gain factor. In some embodiments of apparatus for executing the method for varying a feedback ratio of a feedback divider the calculation of the ratio change value (ΔX) is accomplished with a proportional plus differential (PD) controller. In other embodiments of apparatus for executing the method for varying a feedback ratio of a feedback divider the calculation of the ratio change value (ΔX) is accomplished with using a proportional plus integral (PI) or a proportional plus integral plus differential (PID) controller. In the embodiments, employing a PID controller the integral of phase error must be calculated as well.

In an example of the operation of a phase-locked loop having an adjustable feedback divide ratio, an analogue PLL with a VCO frequency of 100 MHz is designed to operate from a 10 MHz reference frequency. The feedback divide ratio is obviously 10, and the loop bandwidth can be chosen to suit noise and area requirements—in this case a bandwidth of 200 KHz is chosen. In addition, the system must also support a standard 32 KHz (actually 32.768 KHz) watch crystal reference. If the standard 32 KHz watch crystal reference were used in the phase-locked loop without the higher stable frequency reference of 10 MHz, the phase-locked loop would need to be modified, firstly to reduce the loop bandwidth to 3 KHz for stability, and secondly to increase the feedback divide ratio to approximately 3050. These modifications are not desirable for area and noise reasons and would further require larger external components. If instead a reference oscillator with a nominal frequency of 10 MHz is added to the system, the phase-locked loop can be implemented within the area of an integrated circuit with no external circuitry. The 32 KHz clock is fed to the feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit **150** of **140** to appropriately set the feedback signal **142** to correctly set the phase error signal **112** to lock the voltage controlled oscillator **120** frequency to a known fixed multiple of the standard 32 KHz watch crystal reference. Note that it is not necessary to know the exact frequency of the stable high frequency reference input signal f_{HIGH }since the voltage controlled oscillator is locked to the standard 32 KHz watch crystal reference.

An advantage of a phase-locked loop having dual stable reference input signals and an adjustable ratio feedback divider circuit is that it does not require a low-bandwidth phase-locked loop to accept the low-frequency reference input signal. This means that external components (or equivalent digital circuits) are not required to implement the low-bandwidth loop filter. It also means that a reasonable feedback divide ratio between VCO and reference oscillator can be maintained, instead of the huge divide ratios that are required with a single low-frequency reference input signal. More significantly, a digital controller implementing a method for varying a feedback ratio of a feedback divider within a phase-locked loop may already be required in a sample-rate matching scheme, so the only additional component required is the reference oscillator.

By implementing an on-chip stable high frequency reference oscillator f_{HIGH }from as few active components as possible and allowing it to run at its natural frequency, it can have much lower phase noise than the voltage controlled oscillator within the phase-locked loop. Since the stable high frequency reference oscillator f_{HIGH }runs much faster than the external stable low frequency reference input signal f_{LOW}, the feedback divide ratio can be much lower than if the phase-locked loop used the stable is low frequency reference input signal f_{LOW }directly. This makes the phase-locked-loop much less sensitive to reference noise. So although the on-chip stable high frequency reference oscillator f_{HIGH }will have higher noise than an external crystal-derived reference, the output noise of the PLL can in fact be lower.

While this invention has been particularly shown and described with reference to the preferred embodiments thereof, it will be understood by those skilled in the art that various changes in form and details may be made without departing from the spirit and scope of the invention.

## Claims

1. A phase-locked loop comprising

- a stable high frequency reference oscillator to provide a stable high frequency reference signal that has reference frequency that is a small submultiple of a generated frequency of a voltage controlled oscillator within the phase-locked loop; and

- an adjustable output frequency feedback circuit with a feedback divide ratio that is approximately the small submultiple and adjusts the feedback ratio such that the generated frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator is locked to a stable low frequency reference input signal;

- wherein the feedback divide ratio is adjusted as a function of a required ratio change value that is a function of a current phase error of the generated frequency of a voltage controlled oscillator and the stable low frequency reference input signal and a phase error derivative that is is a difference of the current phase error and a previous phase error.

2. The phase-locked loop of claim 1 wherein the stable low frequency reference input signal is generated by a 32.768 kHz watch crystal.

3. A phase-locked loop comprising

- a reference oscillator to provide a stable high frequency reference input signal;

- an adjustable ratio feedback divider circuit in communication with a voltage controlled oscillator of the phase-locked loop to receive an output signal and divides the frequency of output signal by a feedback divide ratio to generate a feedback signal that is applied to a phase-frequency detector and charge pump and compared with the stable high frequency reference signal to generate a phase error that determines a difference in the frequency of the output signal with that of the stable high frequency reference input signal to adjust the voltage controlled oscillator; and

- a feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit in communication with the adjustable ratio feedback divider circuit to transfer a required ratio change value to the adjustable ratio feedback circuit, wherein the feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit comprises: a prescaler that receives an output signal from the voltage controlled oscillator of the phase-locked loop, wherein the prescaler scales a frequency of the output signal of the voltage controlled oscillator by a first integer factor, a capture counter that is in communication with the prescaler such that the capture counter is incremented with the scaled output signal, a capture register that is clocked by a stable low frequency reference input signal to receive the contents of the capture counter, a compare register that is clocked by the stable low frequency reference input signal to increment the capture register by a second integer factor; a phase error calculator for subtracting the contents of the compare register from the contents of the capture register to determine a phase error between the output signal of the voltage controlled oscillator and the stable low frequency reference input signal, a previous phase error register for retaining a previous phase error that is compared with a current phase error to determine a phase error derivative, and a ratio determining circuit in communication with the phase error calculator and the previous phase error register to calculate the required ratio change value from the phase error and the phase error derivative, wherein the required ratio change value is transferred to the adjustable ratio feedback divider circuit for adjusting the feedback divide ratio until the phase-locked loop reaches synchronization.

4. The phase-locked loop of claim 3 wherein the frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator is equal to the product of the first integer factor and the second integer factor multiplied times the frequency of the stable low frequency reference input signal.

5. The phase-locked loop of claim 3 further comprising a sigma delta modulator that receives a feedback signal from the feedback divider circuit that acts as a timing signal for the sigma delta modulator such that the single bit output of the sigma delta modulator is the adjustment signal by which the feedback divider synchronizes the output of the voltage controlled oscillator to the stable low frequency reference input signal.

6. The phase-locked loop of claim 3 wherein the stable low frequency reference input signal is generated by a 32.768 kHz watch crystal.

7. An adjustable ratio feedback divider circuit incorporated in a phase-locked loop in communication with a voltage controlled oscillator of the phase-locked loop to receive an output signal and divide the frequency of output signal by a feedback divide ratio to generate a feedback signal that is applied to a phase-frequency detector and charge pump and compared with the stable high frequency reference signal to generate a phase error that determines a difference in the frequency of the output signal with that of the stable high frequency reference input signal to adjust the voltage controlled oscillator, wherein the adjustable ratio feedback divider circuit comprises:

- a feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit in communication with the adjustable ratio feed back circuit to transfer a required ratio change value to the adjustable ratio feedback circuit, wherein the feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit comprises: a prescaler that receives an output signal from the voltage controlled oscillator of the phase-locked loop, wherein the prescaler scales a frequency of the output signal of the voltage controlled oscillator by a first integer factor, a capture counter that is in communication with the prescaler such that the capture counter is incremented with the scaled output signal, a capture register that is clocked by a stable low frequency reference input signal to receive the contents of the capture counter, a compare register that is clocked by the stable low frequency reference input signal to increment the capture register by a second integer factor; a phase error calculator for subtracting the contents of the compare register from the contents of the capture register to determine a phase error between the output signal of the voltage controlled oscillator and the stable low frequency reference input signal, a previous phase error register for retaining a previous phase error that is compared with a current phase error to determine a phase error derivative, and a ratio determining circuit in communication with the phase error calculator and the previous phase error register to calculate the required ratio change value from the phase error and the phase error derivative, wherein the required ratio change value is transferred to the adjustable ratio feedback divider circuit for adjusting the feedback divide ratio until the phase-locked loop reaches synchronization.

8. The adjustable ratio feedback divider circuit of claim 7 wherein the frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator is equal to the product of the first integer factor and the second integer factor multiplied times the frequency of the stable low frequency reference input signal.

9. The adjustable ratio feedback divider circuit of claim 7 wherein the adjustable ratio feedback divider circuit communicates with a sigma delta modulator that receives a feedback signal from the feedback divider circuit that acts as a timing signal for the sigma delta modulator such that the single bit output of the sigma delta modulator is the adjustment signal by which the feedback divider synchronizes the output of the voltage controlled oscillator to the stable low frequency reference input signal.

10. The phase-locked loop of claim 7 wherein the stable low frequency reference input signal is generated by a 32.768 kHz watch crystal.

11. A feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit that determines a scaling ratio for a feedback divider of a phase-locked loop to generate a feedback signal that is a scaled output signal of a voltage controlled oscillator of the phase-locked loop comprising:

- a capture counter that is incremented based on a first integer factor (N) of the frequency of the output signal of the voltage controlled oscillator;

- a capture register that a stable low frequency reference input signal that is used to clock a capture register to capture the capture count of capture counter and clock the compare register such that it is incremented by a second integer factor;

- a phase comparator that receives the contents of the capture register and the compare register and determines a current phase error as the difference between the contents of the capture register and the compare register; and

- a phase derivative circuit that retains a previous phase error and compares the previous phase error with the current phase error to determine a phase error derivative such that the current phase error and the phase error derivative are then used to determine a required ratio change value is transferred to the feedback divider to adjust the feedback divider ratio until the phase-locked loop reaches synchronization.

12. The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit of claim 11 wherein the feedback divide ratio is adjusted as a function of a required ratio change value that is a function of a current phase error of the generated frequency of a voltage controlled oscillator and the stable low frequency reference input signal and a phase error derivative.

13. The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit of claim 11 wherein the phase error derivative is a difference of the current phase error and a previous phase error.

14. The feedback divider ratio adjustment circuit of claim 11 wherein the stable low frequency reference input signal is generated by a 32.768 kHz watch crystal.

15. A method for varying a feedback ratio of a feedback divider of a phase-locked loop comprising the steps of:

- prescaling an output signal of a voltage controlled oscillator by dividing the output signal fOUT by a first integer value;

- incrementing a capture counter with the prescaled output signal fOUT according to a cycle time of the prescaled output signal;

- transferring the value of the capture counter to a capture register with a time interval that is the cycle time of a stable low frequency reference input signal;

- increment a compare register with the stable low frequency reference input signal by a second integer factor;

- calculating a phase error between the output signal of the voltage controlled oscillator and the stable low frequency reference input signal fLOW by comparing a difference of the contents of the capture register and compare register;

- calculating phase error derivative;

- calculating a required ratio change value as a function of the current phase error and the phase error derivative;

- if the required ratio change value is not zero, adjusting the feedback divide ratio according to the required ratio change value; and

- when the required ratio change value has reached a zero value, the phase-locked loop is synchronized to the stable low frequency reference input signal.

16. The method claim 15 wherein the frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator is equal to the product of the first integer factor and the second integer factor multiplied times the frequency of the stable low frequency reference input signal.

17. The method of claim 15 wherein the stable low frequency reference input signal is generated by a 32.768 kHz watch crystal.

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5790615 | August 4, 1998 | Beale et al. |

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**Other references**

- Co-pending U.S. Appl. No. 12/592,598, filed Nov. 30, 2009, Digital Controller for Automatic Rate Detection and Tracking of Audio Interface Clocks, assigned to the same assignees as the present invention.

**Patent History**

**Patent number**: 8058942

**Type:**Grant

**Filed**: Dec 8, 2009

**Date of Patent**: Nov 15, 2011

**Patent Publication Number**: 20110084768

**Assignee**: Dialog Semiconductor GmbH (Kirchheim/Teck-Nabern)

**Inventors**: Paul Hammond (Linlithgow), Jim Brown (Livingston)

**Primary Examiner**: Arnold Kinkead

**Attorney**: Saile Ackerman LLC

**Application Number**: 12/653,093

**Classifications**

**Current U.S. Class**:

**331/177.R;**Tuning Compensation (331/16); With Reference Oscillator Or Source (331/18); Particular Frequency Control Means (331/34); Phase Lock Loop (327/156)

**International Classification**: H03B 1/00 (20060101);